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No Dogs Allowed - Assistance Animals

Clipped from the North Carolina Real Estate Commission's Real Estate bulletin by Eric A. Mine, Associate Legal Counsel II

Link to the full article here http://www.ncrec.gov/Pdfs/Bulletins/May2016-Vol47-1.pdf

One sunny afternoon, a woman comes into your office. Walking beside her on a leash is a small brown cat. The woman strolls up to your desk and asks if you have any units for rent. You tell her that there are some units for rent, but, nodding toward the cat, you mention that no units permit pets.  The woman laughs and tells you Jasper, apparently the cat’s name, is not a pet. She says that she has a condition that Jasper helps her with and asks that you make an exception to the no-pet policy. But as far as you can tell, the woman doesn’t have any apparent disabilities.

Are you required to make an exception for Jasper?


FHAA Applicable Law

When it comes to making an exemption to a no-pet policy for a rental unit, be it an apartment, condominium, or house, the FHAA will be the applicable law in almost every case.  The FHAA makes it illegal to discriminate against a person with a disability by refusing to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services when it may be necessary to afford an equal opportunity to use and enjoy a dwelling. Making an exception to a no pets policy for an Assistance Animal as defined in the Act has been held to be a reasonable accommodation, and “dwelling” has been very broadly defined and includes most types of housing, with a few very limited exceptions.

So when Jasper’s owner makes her request, you must consider two threshold questions before deciding whether or not you are required under the FHAA to make an exception to the no- pets policy: 1) does the woman have a disability? and 2) does the woman have a need related to her disability for the animal? If the answer to either of those questions is no, then you are not required to make an exception to the no- pets policy. But if the answer to both of those questions is yes, then you and the landlord/owner are required to make an exception to the no-pets policy.


But what exactly can you ask the potential renter? If the person’s disability is readily apparent and it is clear what function the Assistance Animal is providing, you may not ask for any more details and you should accommodate the request as your no-pets policy doesn’t apply. For instance, if the person appears to be blind and the Assistance Animal is a seeing-eye dog, you must allow the dog, no questions asked.

If the person’s disability is not readily apparent and the need for the Assistance Animal is not clear, you may ask the person to submit reliable documentation showing that they have a disability and that they have a disability-related need for the assistance animal. So, back to Jasper and her owner, since the woman has no apparent disability and it is not clear what assistance Jasper is providing, it would be acceptable to ask her to provide a letter from a medical professional stating that she has a disability and Jasper alleviates one or more of the effects of the disability. But you may not ask for details about the person’s disability, including what the disability is, nor require the person to provide detailed medical records. A note from a medical professional is all you should ask for. Likewise, if the disability is apparent, but the need for the Assistance Animal is not, you may ask for documentation showing the need for the Assistance Animal. But, again, you may not ask for details regarding the disability. You also may not ask how or if the Assistance Animal has been specially trained because no special training is needed for an animal to qualify as an Assistance Animal.

Therefore, if the woman provides you the requested letter, you will be required to make an exception to the no-pet policy, unless doing so somehow poses an undue nancial or administrative burden (not likely), the animal poses a direct threat to the safety and health of others (possibily if it’s a kangaroo), or the animal would cause substantial physical damage to the property. And, because under the FHAA Assistance Animals are not considered pets, you may not charge the woman a pet fee or deposit. But keep in mind that you may still charge the woman at the end of the tenancy for any actual damage caused by Jasper. 

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